# Variables

## Explain what is meant by the term "variable" and name five variables that might be investigated by educational researchers.

In simple terms, a variable represents a measurable attribute that changes or varies across the experiment whether comparing results between multiple groups, multiple people or even when using a single person in an experiment conducted over time. In all, there are six common variable types.

The two main variables in an experiment are the independent and dependent variable
An independent variable is a variable that is changed or controlled in a scientific experiment to test the effects on the dependent variable.
dependent variable is a variable being tested and measured in a scientific experiment.
The dependent variable is 'dependent' on the independent variable. As the experimenter changes the independent variable, the effect on the dependent variable is observed and recorded
Independent and Dependent Variable Example

For example, a scientist wants to see if the brightness of light has any effect on a moth being attracted to the light. The brightness of the light is controlled by the scientist. This would be the independent variable. How the moth reacts to the different light levels (distance to the light source) would be the dependent variable.

Independent vs Dependent Variable Key Takeaways

• The independent and dependent variables are the two key variables in a science experiment.
• The independent variable is the one the experimenter controls. The dependent variable is the variable that changes in response to the independent variable.
• The two variables may be related by cause and effect. If the independent variable changes, then the dependent variable is affected.
In an experiment, the researcher is looking for a possible effect on the dependent variable that might be caused by changing the independent variable.

## Independent and Dependent Variables

In general, experiments purposefully change one variable, which is the independent variable. But a variable that changes in direct response to the independent variable is the dependent variable. Say there’s an experiment to test whether changing the position of an ice cube affects its ability to melt. The change in an ice cube's position represents the independent variable. The result of whether the ice cube melts or not is the dependent variable.

Intervening and Moderator Variables
Intervening variables link the independent and dependent variables, but as abstract processes, they are not directly observable during the experiment. For example, if studying the use of a specific teaching technique for its effectiveness, the technique represents the independent variable, while the completion of the technique's objectives by the study participants represents the dependent variable, while the actual processes used internally by the students to learn the subject matter represents the intervening variables.

Constant or Controllable Variable

Sometimes certain characteristics of the objects under scrutiny are deliberately left unchanged. These are known as constant or controlled variables. In the ice cube experiment, one constant or controllable variable could be the size and shape of the cube. By keeping the ice cubes' sizes and shapes the same, it's easier to measure the differences between the cubes as they melt after shifting their positions, as they all started out as the same size.

Extraneous Variables

A well-designed experiment eliminates as many unmeasured extraneous variables as possible. This makes it easier to observe the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. These extraneous variables, also known as unforeseen factors, can affect the interpretation of experimental results. Lurking variables, as a subset of extraneous variables, represent the unforeseen factors in the experiment.