Technologies restricted by law in the territory of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea?
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) has an estimated 23 million inhabitants in a territory of 120,540 km² covering the northern part of the Korean Peninsula between the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and the Yellow Sea, bordering South Korea, China and Russia. Its political, economic and social systems are based on the “juche” ideology of self-reliance and a centralized, socialist state. The political situation remains stable, with the current regime firmly in place, but, on the economic and social front, North Korea is facing major difficulties and now wants to address these in order to improve the living conditions of its population.
World powers have pursued economic and financial sanctions on North Korea for more than a dozen years to pressure it to denuclearize. These governments have also deployed sanctions to punish the regime for cyber-attacks, money laundering, and human rights violations.
While these measures have exacted a heavy toll on the North Korean economy, experts say their effectiveness has been undermined by the failure of some countries to enforce them and the willingness of some companies to flout them. Even if the sanctions were tightened, however, many question whether they would achieve the desired outcome.
The fifteen-member UN Security Council has passed nearly a dozen resolutions, all unanimously, condemning North Korea for its nuclear pursuits and imposing sanctions. Over time, the measures have expanded to
- ban the trade of arms and military equipment, dual-use technologies, vehicles, industrial machinery, and metals;
- freeze the asset of individuals involved in the country’s nuclear program;
- ban the import of certain luxury goods;
- ban the export of electrical equipment, coal, minerals, seafood and other food and agricultural products, wood, textiles, and stones;
- cap North Korean labor exports;
- cap imports of oil and refined petroleum products;
- ban natural gas imports;
- restrict fishing rights;
- restrict scientific and technical cooperation with North Korea; and
- prohibit UN members from opening North Korean bank accounts and banking offices.
BY: Khadheeja Zuyyina (ACFS-1)