Five types of Researcher-completed instruments used in an Educational research

October 26, 2019

Five types of Researcher-completed instruments used in educational research
Research instruments are tools developed by researchers to achieve their stated objectives when carrying out a research study. In other words, research instruments are designed tools that aid the collection of data for the purpose of analysis. There are several types of research instruments, these include; The questionnaire which includes structured and unstructured, The interview which can be structured and unstructured as well but has to be person- to person or through telephone. 
Achievement test. This is a form of instrument that is mainly used in school the determine the performance of students. Others include; Rating scale, Checklist etc. It depends on what variable you are going to measure or what kind of respondents you gonna have. Supposed you plan to measure a process, especially when kind of your research is qualitative, observation list is preferable. To measure people skill uses observation as well. If you want to measure cognitive variable such as students learning the outcome, the test would be appropriate. Types of the test could be multiple-choice, true-false, matching etc.

If your variable is an ability or intelligence such as employees cognitive ability or students naturalistic intelligence, Inkeles scale is more comfortable. When you are going to measure a non-cognitive variable, for instance, employees motivation, so motivation scale by using 5–4–3–2–1 (always, often, sometimes, seldom/rare and never), is more preferable. If you want to measure attitudes, Likert scale is suitable bu using categorization such as strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree. But if you have assumed that all of your respondents are illiterate, opened or closed interview would be appropriate. 
Data Collection Tools
•Selection considerations 
  • –Research question 
  • –Research design 
  • –Type of data (quantitative or qualitative) 
  • –Population 
•Two primary categories 
  • –Subject-completed instruments 
  • –Researcher-completed instruments
  • Subject-Completed Instruments
Instruments that provide quantitative data:
  • 1.Written questionnaire or survey—questions with a limited number of response options (closed-ended questions) 
  • 2.Self-checklist—limited number of items to choose from on a list. Subjects check items that are completed or that they prefer. 
•Instruments that provide qualitative data: 
  • 1.Written questionnaire or survey—open-ended questions (e.g., essay form) Researcher-Completed Instruments
•Instruments that provide qualitative data: 
  • 1. Focus group—Open-ended questions are presented to a group of subjects. 
  • 2. Unstructured interview—Open-ended questions are presented to individual subjects. 
  • 3.Observations—The researcher watches what occurs and records the observations.
•Instruments that provide quantitative data:
  • 1. Structured interview—The researcher reads a survey with limited response options to the subject (closed-ended questions).
  • 2.Performance checklist—The researcher checks off skills that can be performed by the subject. 
  • 3. Product evaluation—The researcher evaluates the product of an individual (e.g., a bowl made on the potter’s wheel). 
  • 4. Rating scale—The researcher ranks items from highest to lowest. 




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