Describe five types of researcher-completed instruments used in an educational research.

October 23, 2019

five types of researcher-completed instruments used in an educational research.

1.Rating Scale 

Rating scale is defined as a closed-ended survey question used to represent respondent feedback in a comparative form for specific particular features/products/services. It is one of the most established question types for online and offline surveys where survey respondents are expected to rate an attribute or feature. Rating scale is a variant of the popular multiple-choice question which is widely used to gather information that provides relative information about a specific topic.
Researchers use a rating scale in research when they intend to associate a qualitative measure with the various aspects of a product or feature. Generally, this scale is used to evaluate the performance of a product or service, employee skills, customer service performances, processes followed for a particular goal etc. Rating scale survey question can be compared to a checkbox question but rating scale provides more information than merely Yes/No.

2.Interview schedule

Interview schedule is another procedure under self-reporting technique of individual data collection. In the interview the individual is made to answer several questions put to him related to a specific aspect in a face to face situation. In conducting interview the interviewer (guidance personnel) may use questions specified before hand. This is called structured interview. If the interviewer doesn’t have any pre-specified questions while conducting interview, it is called unstructured interview.
Besides the above types, interviews may be counselling interview, diagnostic interview, non-directive interview, authoritarian interview and non-authoritarian interview. For guidance purpose non directive interview seems to be most useful and helpful. The counsellor follows the student’s needs, reflex and helps to clarify his feeling. He doesn’t inject his own ideas into the conversation by questions or suggestions or by giving information or advice.


A flowchart is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of operations to be performed to get the solution to a problem. It can be seen from the definition that a flow always accompanies with business or transaction. Not all of the flows, however, are appropriate to be expressed by flowcharts, unless these flows are based on some fixed routines and stable links. Here is an example of the algorithm flowchart.

4.Tally sheets

A tally sheet, also called a check sheet, is used as a form for collecting information through observation and counting. It is used to count how often something has happened or will happen or to count items. Tally sheets can be as simple as using a sheet of paper and pencil, or as complex as a computerized program. They are a simple and efficient way to collect, organize and analyze data. They are used to count many things including votes, inventory and survey results.

5.Anecdotal records

An anecdotal record (or anecdote) is like a short story that educators use to record a significant incident that they have observed. Please see the Observing section for a short discussion of what educators might consider significant. Anecdotal records are usually relatively short and may contain descriptions of behaviours and direct quotes.

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