What technologies should scientists develop for people to live on Mars?
Mars provides a good environment for human habitation. Different technologies have been developed to assist long-term space exploration and may be adapted for habitation on Mars. Colonization of Mars would require a wide variety of equipment. Which would directly provide services to human beings such as production equipment used to produce food, propellant, water, energy and breathable oxygen in order to support human colonization efforts.
Firstly, in order to function at all the colony would need the basic utilities to support human civilization. These would need to be designed to handle the harsh Martian environment and would either have to be serviceable whilst wearing an EVA suit or housed inside a human habitable environment. For instance, if electricity generation systems rely on solar power, large energy storage facilities will also be needed to cover the periods when dust storms block out the sun, and automatic dust removal systems may be needed to avoid human disclosure to conditions on the surface.
Secondly, the path to a human colony could be organized by robotic systems such as the Mars. These systems could help trace resources, such as ground water or ice, that would help a colony grow and succeed. The lifetimes of these systems would be years and even decades, and as recent developments in profitable spaceflight have shown, it may be that these systems will involve private as well as government ownership. These robotic systems also have a reduced cost compared with early crewed operations, and have less political risk.