Information Contained in a General Reference and give an Example of such a source

September 12, 2019

Information Contained in a General Reference and give an example of such a source

Why references are necessary?
References show that you have carefully reviewed the relevant literature and are now contributing something novel to the academic community. You establish authority and credibility when you can critically assess other literature and distinguish your findings from previous works (if any exist). We emphasize “critically assess” in the last sentence because references are only as good as you apply them to your research. Therefore, the famous adage “quality over quantity” is the key to deciding how many references are sufficient.

In general, online reference materials are consulted the same way as print reference materials; they contain specific pieces of information and are not usually read from cover to cover. The most familiar types are dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacks, biographical sources, directories, atlases, and bibliographies.
Almanacks are not usually used for extensive research but are good for looking up specific facts, statistics, tables and lists about people, places, events, countries, organizations, zip codes, and popular cultures such as sports and entertainment. Generally, almanacks cover a broad period of time, while Yearbooks, which contain similar information, only cover a given year
Bibliographies compile comprehensive lists of resources that share one or more common attributes about a particular subject, person, geographical area, etc. Some bibliographies also briefly describe the resources that are listed. One should consult a bibliography when they want citations that will guide them to specific resources.
Standard dictionaries give an alphabetical list of words and their definitions, but there are several useful variations also classified as dictionaries. Thesauri contain synonyms and antonyms (opposites) but usually, don't define the words. There are also dialect and slang dictionaries, dictionaries of abbreviations and acronyms, dictionaries of quotations, and picture dictionaries. Dictionaries can be unabridged (general) or can be thematically organized in some way.
Encyclopedias contain full coverage of information about an area of knowledge. They can be general or can cover a specific subject, and contain alphabetically organized entries with varying detail. These are great starting points for fact-finding, getting background topic information, learning of key events and individuals, or starting a research project. Below is a major general encyclopedia. See Best Practices on this guides Home page to pinpoint valuable subject-specific encyclopedias.
Atlases contain an organized group of pictorial or illustrated political, cultural, physical, road, and/or thematic maps. Atlases may be organized around a specific subject, theme, or geographic area. 
Biographies contain information about people, both living and deceased - they can contain brief summaries of data about individuals, contain lists of citations of resources about a person, or be full-length books detailing the life of one particular person. Biographies may cover general important figures or maybe organized thematically/geographically, etc. One would use biography to look up facts or detailed information about a person or group of people.
Directories contain an organized list of people and/or organizations, and help one to find information such as addresses, phone numbers, and email addresses, etc. for the organizations or people included within the scope of that directory.
Handbooks/ Manual
A handbook contains facts about a specific subject or instructions that can be used to accomplish something. A handbook can come in several forms, such as a manual for completing tasks, or a guidebook providing information about a subject, region, etc. (such as a travel guidebook). Handbooks are often designed for a quick consultation and easy portability.
Chronologies/ Timelines
Chronologies and timelines summarize the advancement of an event or happening by supplying brief milestones in the progression of the event. The summaries will be presented day-by-day, year-by-year, or by another chronological breakdown.

Indexes are compilations on information, generally arranged either alphabetically or numerically, that indicate the location of related information either within or outside of the same resource. 

Why is it important to include citations & references
Including APA citations and references in your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging the original authors and their work.
All about citations & references

Citations and references should be included anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation and a reference. This guide explains how to make them. References are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included in this reference list page is the full information for any in-text citations found in the body of the project. These references are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.

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