Describe briefly what is meant by "ethical" research
Research ethics provides guidelines for the responsible conduct of research. The following is a general summary of some ethical principles: Honesty: Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Research ethics provides guidelines for the responsible conduct of research. Also, it educates and monitors scientists conducting research to ensure a high ethical standard. The following is a general summary of some ethical principles:
Honesty: Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data.
Objectivity: Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research.
Integrity: Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action.
Carefulness: Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities.
Openness: Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property: Honour patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is due. Never plagiarize.
Confidentiality: Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
Responsible Publication: Publish to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
Responsible Mentoring: Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions.
Respect for Colleagues: Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly.
Social Responsibility: Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy.
Non-Discrimination: Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students based on sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity.
Competence: Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
Legality: Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
Animal Care: Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments.
Human Subjects Protection: When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy.
Five principles for research ethics
1. Discuss intellectual property frankly
2. Be conscious of multiple roles
3. Follow informed-consent rules
4. Respect confidentiality and privacy
5. Tap into ethics resources
Qualitative research or interpretative research can be very sensitive because it depends on information people are ready to give you. That notwithstanding, there are ethical issues involved, these issues are considered from the data collection to the conclusion of the study. The major ethical issues in conducting research are Informed consent - permission must be sought from participants before taking or recording their views, meaning that the use of cajoling, coercion and force renders your research invalid. Beneficence - Do not harm (research should be of benefit to the population). Respect for anonymity and confidentiality (protection of respondent identity and expert management of information received). Respect for privacy - privacy is the freedom an individual has to determine the time, extent, and general circumstances under which private information will be shared with or withheld from others. In research, this freedom must be respected. Non-inclusion of vulnerable groups of people (vulnerability is a characteristic of people unable to protect their own rights and welfare). So, vulnerable groups include captive populations (prisoners, institutionalised, students etc), mentally ill persons, aged people, children, critically ill or dying, poor, with learning disabilities, sedated or unconscious people. Any information obtained from this group of people is invalid.