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The new Face ID technology: is it a revolutionary invention?

August 30, 2019

Face ID 

Face ID is a facial recognition system designed and developed by Apple Inc. for the iPhone (X, XR, XS & XS Max) and iPad Pro (third generation). The successor to Touch ID, the system allows biometric authentication for unlocking a device, making payments, and accessing sensitive data, as well as providing detailed facial expression tracking for Animoji and other features. Initially released in November 2017 with the iPhone X, it has since been The Face ID hardware consists of a sensor with three modules; one projects a grid of small infrared dots onto a user's face whose name is dot projector, the other module called the flood illuminator reads the resulting pattern and generates a 3D facial map, and the third one is the infrared camera which takes an infrared picture of the user. This map is compared with the registered face using a secure subsystem, and the user is authenticated if the two faces match sufficiently. The system can recognize faces with glasses, clothing, makeup, and facial hair, and adapts to changes in appearance over time.
Face ID has sparked a number of debates about security and privacy. Apple claims it is significantly more advanced than Touch ID and has far fewer false positives in general, though Face ID has shown mixed results when trying to separate identical twins. Multiple security features largely limit the risk of the system being bypassed using photos or masks, and only one proof-of-concept attempt using detailed scans has succeeded. Debate continues over the lack of legal protections offered by biometric systems as compared to passcode authentication in the United States. Privacy advocates have also expressed concern about third-party app developers' access to "rough maps" of user facial data, despite rigid requirements by Apple of how developers handle facial data.updated and introduced to all new iPhone and iPad Pro models.

Technology

Face ID is based on a facial recognition sensor that consists of two parts: a dot projector module that projects more than 30,000 infrared dots onto the user's face, and an infrared camera module that reads the pattern. The pattern is encrypted and sent to a local "Secure Enclave" in the device's CPU to confirm a match with the registered face.The stored facial data is a mathematical representation of key details of the face, and it is inaccessible to Apple or other parties. To avoid involuntary authentication, the system requires the user to open their eyes and look at the device to attempt a match, although this can be disabled through an accessibility setting. Face ID is temporarily disabled and the user's passcode is required after 5 unsuccessful scans, 48 hours of inactivity, restarting the device, or if two of the device's side buttons are held briefly.

Aminath Saama (ACFS batch 1)

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