History of Computer

August 30, 2019

History of Computers

The world first electromechanical binary programmable computer created by German Konrad  Zuse. This computer was invented in his parent’s living room and this computer was invent between 1936 and 1938. The first computer systems used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire room. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first generation computing devices.
There are information about  three generation of computers:

First generation:

 The first generation computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. The vacuum tube was developed by Lee De Forest. A vacuum tube is a device generally used to amplify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space.


  •        Use of vacuum tubes to make circuits
  •          Use of magnetic drums
  •          Use of machine language and symbols in instructions
  •          Very small amount of storage space
  •          Use of punch cards as I/O devices
  •          Huge in size and poor in mobility
  •          Very slow and less reliable output
  •          Use of high electricity
  •          Generates too much heats
  •          Complex  and expensive to maintain

Second Generation:

A transistor computer, now often called a second generation computer, is a computer which uses discrete transistors instead of vacuum tubes. A second generation of computers, through the late 1950s and 1960s featured circuit boards filled with individual transistors and magnetic core memory.


  • Use of transistors.
  • Magnetic memory and magnetic storage disks.
  • High speed I/O devices.
  • Invention and use of high level languages such as Fortran and Cobol.
  • Reduced size.
  • Solution to heat generation.
  • Communication by using telephone line.
Improvement of speed and reliability

Third Generation:

The period of third generation was from 1965-1971. The computers of third generation used Integrated Circuits (ICs) in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors, and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. ... This development made computers smaller in size, reliable, and efficient.


  • Integrated circuits instead of individual transistors.
  • Smaller, cheaper, more efficient and faster than second generation computers.
  • High-level programming languages.
  • Magnetic storage.

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