Basic Components involved in the Research Process
The following steps outline a simple and effective strategy for writing a research paper. Depending on your familiarity with the topic and the challenges you encounter along the way, you may need to rearrange these steps.
Identify the area/topic of interest? Do some reading on the area of interest. Write a list of some ideas or possible questions. Choose the main research question Has this research been done before?
Step 2: a Conduct a literature review
A systematic process of capturing what is known on a particular topic – To understand the state of current knowledge – To identify gaps, limitations or inconsistencies A process of summarizing “synthesizing” results − Draw a conclusion about what is known/not known, similarities/differences between studies, highlight findings − Use critical appraisal tools to evaluate the quality of evidence to ensure that the question has not been already examined. Search books, journal articles and grey literature on your topic See reference sections for other relevant articles FH Library Services can help you: Focus your research question Aid in your search, including facilitating offsite access to databases Assist with article retrieval.
Step 3: Refine the research question
The general idea is formulated into an answerable research question Narrow down the topic Start thinking in more detail: – Focus: re-state the problem or research question – Specify: who, where, when, and what Ensure question is relevant, realistic & feasible.
Step 4: Plan research methodology & Design
Describe how the research will be carried out Select methodology to allow you to answer your research question: qualitative vs quantitative Select methods and tools Consider, Study participants and sampling methods Measures & measurement methods procedure for accessing data Procedure for interventions Sample size justification Analysis plan Dissemination of results.
Step 5: Create a research proposal
Will enable people who are not involved in the study to understand exactly what you plan to do A proposal will be required for: – seeking departmental approval applying for grant funding ethics review. The proposal should include: abstract background information question & goals & objectives & hypotheses justification & relevance research design, subjects, measures, data collection the procedure, sample size justification, data analysis KT plan – (may include budget + other sections)
Step 6: Applying for grant funding
Often possible to apply for funding for research study Funders require a detailed research proposal Consult with the FH DEES Methodology Unit early Contact Kate Keetch, Research Development Specialist, for further information regarding grant writing.
Step 7: Ethics approval
Ethics is essential when dealing with human subjects or health data The Fraser Health Research Ethics Board (REB) reviews submissions on a regular basis See the Fraser Health Research homepage for more information and guidelines.
Step 8: Collect and analyze data
Collecting data for your study is exciting The goal is to generate reliable results Follow your study design and methods Exercise care in collecting, coding and documentation of data Follow your analysis plan.
Step 9: Draw conclusions and relate findings
Summarize your findings and formulate conclusions Was your research question answered? Why do you think this was the case? What were the limitations of your study? What new information was gained that would inform future research?